张学珍,刘欣睿,严建武,丁娜娜. 2022. 中亚费尔干纳盆地灌溉气候效应的数值模拟研究[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:[doi]
中亚费尔干纳盆地灌溉气候效应的数值模拟研究
A numerical study of effects of irrigation on surface climate in Fergana Basin, Central Asia
投稿时间:2021-11-10  修订日期:2022-03-30
DOI:
中文关键词:  费尔干纳盆地  农田灌溉  气候效应
英文关键词:Fergana basin  Farmland irrigation  Climate effect
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA20020202), 国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0600401)
作者单位邮编
张学珍 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所中国科学院大学 100101
刘欣睿  100101
严建武  710119
丁娜娜  100101
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中文摘要:
      中亚地区地处干旱气候区,农业生产高度依赖灌溉,然而灌溉对当地气候影响的认识还较为薄弱。为此,本文针对多雨(2009年)、少雨(2008年)及正常(2007年)年景下中亚典型农业区——费尔干纳盆地暖季(5—9月)的气候,利用嵌入灌溉过程参数化方案并更新土壤参数的WRF模式,分别进行了考虑灌溉过程与不考虑灌溉过程的模拟试验(以下分别称为IRRG试验和NATU试验),并通过对比IRRG与NATU试验之差揭示了灌溉对区域气候的影响。研究发现:(1)灌溉致使暖季地面潜热增加(+79.2 W/m2)、感热减少(—61.3 W/m2),日均温降低1.7 ℃,空气比湿增加2 g/kg(约为NATU的36 %),其中因5—6月为雨季,7—8月为旱季,致使7—8月的灌溉量大,冷湿效应略强于5—6月;(2)冷湿效应主要出现在灌溉区域,降温达2 ℃,增湿达2.4 g/kg,而灌区外甚微,同时从地面到高层大气,冷湿效应越来越弱,在约500 hPa(距地面约4000米)以上冷湿效应消失;(3)在盆地中央平原地区,因灌溉而致空气湿度增加产生的潜在增雨效应与地面冷却产生的对流抑制作用相互抵消,因而灌溉与无灌溉情景下当地降水无显著差异;然而,灌溉可导致盆地南、北两侧山区降水增加(约0.6 mm/d);(4)不同年景之间灌溉量差异主要出现于5—6月,少雨年比多雨年灌溉量偏多20 mm/月,日均温降幅偏大0.3 ℃,空气比湿增幅偏大0.5 g/kg,但山区降水增幅偏低0.6 mm/d。
英文摘要:
      Central Asia is located in the arid climate zone and agricultural production is highly relying on the irrigation. However, our understandings on?the effects of irrigation on local climate remain unclear. In this study, the effects of irrigation on the warm season (May-September) of Fergana Basin were studied using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) into which an irrigation parameterization scheme was implemented and soil data was also updated. We carried out one couple of simulations, namely IRRG?including irrigation and NATU excluding irrigation, taking cases years of above normal rainfall year (i.e. 2009), below normal rainfall year (i.e. 2008) and the normal rainfall year (i.e. 2007), respectively. The climatic effects of irrigation were hence studied by comparing IRRG to NATU simulations. The results show that (1) irrigation lead to an average increment of surface latent heat (+79.2 W/m2) and a reduction of surface sensible heat (-61.3 W/m2), both of which lead daily mean cooling of 1.7 ℃ and specific humidity increment of 2 g/kg (accounting for about 36% of NATU) in warm season. Since the May to June is rainy season and July to August is dry season, the irrigation demand in July to August is larger than that in May to June and, thereby, so is it for cooling effect and wetting effect. (2) The cooling and wetting effects mainly exist in the irrigation area with cooling of 2 ℃ and specific humidity increment of 2.4 g/kg, while they are too weak to be detected beyond the irrigation area. Meanwhile, from the ground to the upper atmosphere, the cooling and wetting effects gradually weaken and could not be detected above the pressure level of 500 hPa (about 4000 m above the ground). (3) In the central plain of basin, the potential rainy effect caused by air humidity increment and the potential rainless effect caused by convective inhibition due to surface cooling under the irrigation offset with each other. As a result, the local precipitation has not detectable differences between the IRRG and NATU simulations. However, irrigation lead to the increment of remote precipitation (~0.6 mm/d) in the northern and southern mountains around the basin. (4) The differences of irrigation demand and its effects on climate between different climate backgrounds mainly exist in May to June. The irrigation demand in 2008 is more by 20 mm per month than that in 2009; as a consequence, the cooling effect is stronger by 0.3 ℃ and wetting effect is stronger by 0.5 g/kg in 2008 than those in 2009. Meanwhile, the rainy effect is weaker by 0.6 mm/d in 2008 than that in 2009.
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