姚展予,屠琦,安琳,汪会,李集明,贾烁,赵洁云,姚振东. 2022. 冰雹形成过程及人工防雹研究综述[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:[doi]
冰雹形成过程及人工防雹研究综述
Review of Advances in Hail Formation Process and Hail Suppression Research
投稿时间:2021-06-25  修订日期:2022-06-13
DOI:
中文关键词:  冰雹形成过程,人工防雹机理,人工防雹技术,人工防雹科学试验,人工防雹效果评估
英文关键词:Hail formation process, Mechanism of hail suppression, Technology of hail suppression, Scientific experiments of hail suppression, Effect evaluation of hail suppression
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
姚展予 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室中国气象局云雾物理环境重点开放实验室成都信息工程大学 100081
屠琦 成都信息工程大学 610225
安琳  100081
汪会  100081
李集明  100081
贾烁  100081
赵洁云  100081
姚振东  610225
摘要点击次数: 17
全文下载次数: 11
中文摘要:
      冰雹作为一种短时强灾害性天气过程,常给农业、建筑、电力、交通甚至生命财产等造成严重影响,人工防雹也因此受到人们的广泛关注。本文首先介绍了冰雹形成机理和雹云物理研究,然后围绕人工防雹机理、防雹技术、防雹科学试验及防雹效果评估这四个方面的研究进行了综述,旨在从理论和实践上深入了解人工防雹工作的国内外进展,增进对人工防雹科学问题的认知,从而为促进我国人工防雹理论研究和技术进步提供借鉴。研究表明:(1)“累积带理论”和“循环增长理论”是冰雹形成的最常见理论,限于早期的雷达观测技术和缺乏完整的冰雹数值模式,早期认知的冰雹形成机理存在一定的局限性。(2)雹胚一般分为冻滴胚和霰胚,冻滴胚由过冷雨滴冻结形成,霰胚则是冰晶、雪花撞冻增长而成。冰雹云中哪种雹胚占优势,主要看云底温度高低。雹云的发展依赖于水汽条件、动力不稳定条件、垂直风切变等关键因子。(3)人工防雹主要遵循“播撒防雹”和“爆炸防雹”两条技术路线,“利益竞争”和“早期降雨”是常见的六种防雹原理假说中最广泛被用来作为防雹作业设计依据的两种播撒防雹理论。(4)人工防雹技术上,多采用通过飞机、地面火箭、地面燃烧炉等向云中播撒人工冰核,或通过地面高炮向云中发射含人工冰核的炮弹等方式,影响冰雹的生长过程从而达到抑制或削弱冰雹增长的目的。(5)大量外场试验证明人工防雹效果有较大的地域差异,需因地制宜地根据各地冰雹云特征及其降雹特点,制定和发展本地适用的人工防雹技术体系。(6)人工防雹效果检验仍然是制约人工防雹技术发展的一个瓶颈问题,目前常用的统计检验、物理检验和数值模拟检验技术方法均需要进一步的改进和完善。由于雹云变化迅速、降雹过程短促,人工防雹技术实施的时效性以及防雹效果评估仍存在较大的困难。今后应更多地借助多种探测设备进行冰雹云的精细化探测,开展有科学设计的人工防雹外场综合试验,运用统计检验、物理检验和数值模拟相结合的综合检验技术方法评估防雹效果,推动人工防雹事业更进一步发展。
英文摘要:
      As a kind of short-time severe weather disaster, hail often has serious impacts on agriculture, construction, electricity, transportation and even lives and property, etc. Therefore, hail suppression is widely concerned throughout the country. This paper provided a review of the hail formation mechanism and hail cloud physics, and discussed in detail the research progress in terms of mechanism, technology, scientific experiments and effect evaluation of hail suppression, in order to gain an in-depth knowledge of the domestic and international development of hail suppression work from both theoretical and practical perspectives, and to improve understanding of scientific problems of hail suppression, therefore to provide reference for promoting theoretical research and technological progress of hail suppression in China. Studies have shown results as follows. (1) The “theory of zone of accumulation” and the "theory of cyclic growth" are the most common theories of hail formation. Limited to the early radar observation technology and the lack of complete hail numerical models, the early cognition of the hail formation mechanism has certain limitations. (2) Hail embryos are generally divided into frozen drop embryos and graupel embryos. Frozen drop embryos are formed by the freezing of supercooled raindrops while graupel embryos are formed by the growth of collision and freezing of ice crystals and snowflakes. What kind of hail embryo is dominant in the hail cloud mainly depends on the temperature of the cloud base. The development of hail clouds depends on key factors such as water vapor conditions, dynamic instability conditions, and vertical wind shear etc. (3) The mechanism of hail suppression mainly follows the two technical lines, “hail suppression by seeding” and “hail suppression by explosion”, and “competing interests” and “early rainfall” are the two most widely used theories of seeding among the six common hypotheses of hail suppression on which hail suppression operations are designed. (4) Technically, the hail suppression operations are mainly seeding hail clouds with artificial ice nuclei by aircraft, rocket launcher, ground generator et al., or launching shells with artificial ice nuclei by ground artillery, which can affect the growth process of hail in order to suppress or weaken the growth of hail. (5) A large number of field experiments of hail suppression have proved that there are regional differences in operation effect of hail suppression. It needs to formulate and develop regional hail suppression technology systems adapted to local conditions according to the characteristics of hail clouds and hailstorms in different regions. (6) Evaluating the effect of hail suppression is still a bottleneck problem limiting the development of hail suppression technology. The methods that commonly used to assess the effect of hail suppression mainly include statistical, physical, and numerical simulation evaluations, which need further improvement. Due to the rapid changes in hail clouds and short hailstorm processes, there are still great difficulties in the timeliness of implementation of hail suppression operation and in the effect evaluation of hail suppression. It will start from carrying out fine detection of hail clouds based on a variety of observation equipment, carry out comprehensive field experiments of hail suppression with scientific design, and combine statistical, physical and numerical simulation effect evaluation of hail suppression, so as to promote the further development of hail suppression technology in future.
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
分享按钮