石春娥,李耀孙,张浩,杨关盈,周建平. 2021. 安徽省不同等级雾和重度霾时空分布特征及地面气象条件比较[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2021.046
安徽省不同等级雾和重度霾时空分布特征及地面气象条件比较
Comparisons of spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and surface meteorological conditions of different levels of fog and severe haze in Anhui Province
投稿时间:2021-02-18  修订日期:2021-04-14
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2021.046
中文关键词:  强浓雾、重度霾、区域性一致性、风向风速、降温幅度
英文关键词:Extremely dense fog  Heavy haze, regional  characteristics, wind  speed/wind  direction, cooling  range
基金项目:国家自然科学基金
作者单位邮编
石春娥 安徽省气象科学研究所/安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室 230031
李耀孙 云南省气象台
云南省气象台 
650034
张浩 安徽省气象科学研究所/安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室 230031
杨关盈 安徽省气象科学研究所/安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室 230031
周建平 安徽省气象科学研究所/安徽省大气科学与卫星遥感重点实验室 230031
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中文摘要:
      雾和霾都是低能见度天气,生成条件相似。本研究利用安徽78个地面站逐时观测资料,基于雾、霾发生物理条件,建立了不同等级雾日和重度霾日的观测诊断方法,重建了不同等级雾和重度霾的时序资料。根据各站强浓雾发生的同步性,将安徽分为5个雾、霾分布特征不同的区域,探讨了各区域不同等级雾及重度霾出现时地面气象条件的异同。结果表明:(1)安徽强浓雾主要是辐射雾。强浓雾、浓雾和大雾空间分布形势大体一致,淮河以北东、西部和江南都属于强浓雾高发区,但各地强浓雾的时空分布特征和影响系统不同;重度霾有明显的北多、南少、山区最少的分布特征。(2)强浓雾年变化呈双峰型分布,峰值在1月和4月,日变化为单峰型,峰值在06时;而重度霾年变化为单峰型,峰值在1月,日变化为双峰型。(3)在强浓雾的高发时段(02-08时),强浓雾时降温幅度最大,比重度霾平均高1℃,风速显著偏低,超过75%的样本风速低于1.5 m/s,且无明显主导风向;而重度霾时,风速比雾时明显偏大,个别区域有超过75%的样本风速大于1.5m/s,且以西北风到东北风为主。说明重度霾能否演变为强浓雾的关键地面气象因子是风速、风向。
英文摘要:
      Fog and haze are low visibility weather, with similar formation conditions. Based on the hourly observational data at 78 surface stations in Anhui Province and the physical conditions of fog and haze, a set of methods were established to diagnose fog days with different grades and heavy haze days, and the time series data of fog days with different grades and heavy haze days were reconstructed. According to the synchronization of the extremely dense fog at each station, Anhui province was divided into five regions with different distribution characteristics of fog and haze, and the similarities and differences of surface meteorological conditions of different grades of fog and heavy haze in each region were discussed. The results show that: (1) the extremely dense fog in Anhui mainly belongs to radiation fog. The spatial distributions of extremely dense fog, dense fog and fog are basically the same. The two regions to the north of Huaihe River and the region to the south of the Yangtze River are high incidence areas of extremely dense fog, but the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and impact weather systems of extremely dense fog are different among the three regions. The distribution characteristics of heavy haze are more in the north, less in the South and least in mountainous areas. (2) The annual variation of extremely dense fog is bimodal, with peaks in January and April; the daily variation is unimodal, with peak at 06:00; the annual variation of heavy haze is unimodal, with peak in January, and the daily variation is bimodal. (3) During the high incidence period of extremely dense fog (02:00-08:00 BT), the extremely dense fog is characterized as the largest cooling range, which is 1 ℃ higher than that for the heavy haze averagely, significantly low wind speed, less than 1.5 m/s for more than 75% of the samples, and without obvious dominant wind direction; While in heavy haze, the wind speed is significantly higher than that in fog, e.g., exceeding 1.5 m/s for more than 75% of the samples in some areas, having obvious dominant wind direction, e.g., northwest, north and northeast. It indicates that wind speed and wind direction are the key surface meteorological factors for heavy haze to evolve into extremely dense fog.
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