王改利,ZHOU Renran,ZHAXI Suolang,Liu Liping. 2021. 青藏高原墨脱地区云降水综合观测及初步统计特征分析[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2021.054
青藏高原墨脱地区云降水综合观测及初步统计特征分析
Comprehensive observation and preliminary statistical analysis of cloud and precipitation in Motuo of Tibet Plateau
投稿时间:2021-01-21  修订日期:2021-05-10
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2021.054
中文关键词:  藏东南,云雷达,宏观特征,雨滴谱分布,海洋性对流降水
英文关键词:Tibetan Plateau,Radar observation, Macroscopic  characteristics, Raindrop  spectrum distribution, Maritime-like  convective precipitation
基金项目:(41775036)
作者单位邮编
王改利 Chinese Academy of Meteorological Science 100081
ZHOU Renran 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室
State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather
State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather 
100081
ZHAXI Suolang 西藏自治区墨脱气象局 860700
Liu Liping Chinese Academy of Meteorological Science 100081
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中文摘要:
      在第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究专题和国家重点研发计划项目的支持下,中国气象科学研究院于2019年在位于青藏高原东南部雅鲁藏布大峡谷水汽通道入口处的墨脱地区建立了野外观测试验基地,开展了水汽、云和降水的综合观测,先后布设了先进的Ka波段云雷达、微波辐射计、X波段双偏振相控阵雷达、降水现象仪、Ku波段微雨雷达等设备,获取了高时空分辨率的云和降水的宏微观数据。本文简单介绍了此次观测的情况,并利用云雷达2019年1-12月的观测数据和降水现象仪2019年6月至2020年6月的观测数据对云的宏观特征及雨滴谱特征进行了统计分析。从云的宏观特征来看,该地区云的发生率较高,占2019年云雷达观测的67%,其中降水云占总云的45%。旱季和雨季云底高度的频率分布在垂直方向均有两个高值区,分别为0-1 km和2-3 km,且超过40%的云底高度低于1 km,这可能是墨脱降水云较多造成的。接近60%的云顶高度在4-7 km。总的来说,墨脱地区以中云和低云为主,云层通常在下午到晚上形成,早上到中午慢慢消散;从雨滴谱分布特征来看,该地区平均的雨滴谱谱宽和大雨滴的浓度随雨强的增大而增加,降水以中小粒子为主,中小粒子的贡献超过粒子数浓度的99%。对流云降水的特点是粒子直径较小,而数浓度较大。粒子质量加权平均直径(Dm)的范围在1.0-1.6 mm(平均值1.38 mm), 标准化截距参数 (log10Nw)的范围在3.6-4.5(平均值4.01),表现出海洋性对流降水的特征。此外,该地区降水的log10Nw呈现双峰特征,分别对应于对流云和层状云降水。
英文摘要:
      With the support of the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program and the National (Key) Basic Research and Development Program of China, the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences established a field campaign in Motuo, which is located in the entrance of the water vapor channel of Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon in the southeastern Tibet Plateau (TP) in 2019. The advanced X-band dual polarization phased array radar, Ka band cloud radar, Ku band micro radar, precipitation phenomenometer, and microwave radiometer were used to carry out comprehensive observation of water vapor, cloud and precipitation. One of the specific scientific goals of the campaign is to obtain a better understanding of the cloud and precipitation microphysical processes to improve the parameterization scheme of the cloud-precipitation microphysical processes in numerical models. Based on the cloud radar data from January to December 2019 and precipitation phenomenometer data from June 2019 to June 2020, the macroscopic characteristics of cloud and raindrop spectrum characteristics are statistically analyzed. As far as the macroscopic characteristics of clouds are concerned, the occurrence frequency of clouds in this area is relatively high, accounting for 67% of cloud radar profiles in 2019, and precipitation cloud accounts for 45% of the cloud cover. Both dry and rainy seasons had two most probable heights for the cloud base heights (CBHs), corresponding to heights of 0–1 km and 2-3 km. One striking feature was that more than 40% of the CBHs were lower than 1 km, probably due to the fact of precipitation cloud with high occurrence frequency. Nearly 60% of the cloud top heights (CTHs) were between 4 and 7 km. In general, the vertical frequency distribution of CBHs and CTHs indicated that low- and middle level clouds dominated in Motuo during the observation period. Clouds tended to form most frequently in the afternoon until the evening, while dissipate slowly from morning to noon. In terms of the raindrop spectrum characteristics, the average raindrop spectral width and number concentration of large drops increased with the rainfall intensity. The combination of small- and midsize drops dominated the precipitation in Motuo, and their contributions exceeded 99% of the number concentration. The convective precipitation in Motuo was identified as maritime-like precipitation and was characterized by a large normalized intercept parameter log10Nw = 3.6-4.5 (with a mean value of 4.01) and small mass-weighted mean diameter Dm = 1.0-1.6 mm (with a mean value of 1.38 mm). Furthermore, the characteristic bimodality of log10Nw was observed in Motuo, corresponding to convective and stratiform precipitation.
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