李昱薇,傅刚,陈莅佳,孙柏堂. 2021. 2018年1月北大西洋上一个具有“T型”锋面结构的超强爆发性气旋的分析[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2021.025
2018年1月北大西洋上一个具有“T型”锋面结构的超强爆发性气旋的分析
Analyses of a Super Explosive Cyclone with Frontal “T-bone” Structure over the Northern Atlantic in January 2018
投稿时间:2020-12-03  修订日期:2021-02-02
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2021.025
中文关键词:  爆发性气旋,“T型”锋面结构,锋生函数,WRF模式,Zwack-Okossi方程
英文关键词:Explosive cyclone, Frontal “T-bone” structure, Frontogenesis function, WRF modeling, Zwack-Okossi equation
基金项目:国家自然科学基金
作者单位邮编
李昱薇 山东省气象台 250031
傅刚 中国海洋大学海洋气象学系中国海洋大学物理海洋教育部重点实验室 266100
陈莅佳 中国海洋大学海洋气象学系 266100
孙柏堂 莱西市气象局 266100
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中文摘要:
      利用ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts)提供的0.5o×0.5o的ERA-Interim再分析资料,CIMSS (Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies)提供的GOES-EAST (Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite- EAST)红外卫星云图和大气数值模式WRF (Weather Research and Forecast)的模拟结果,对2018年1月3日至6日发生在北大西洋上一个具有“T型”(T-bone)锋面结构的超强爆发性气旋进行分析。该爆发性气旋在较暖的湾流上空生成,沿海表面温度大值区向东北方向快速发展,生成后6 h内爆发性发展,24 h中心气压降低48.7 hPa。高空槽加深、涡度平流加强和低层较强的大气斜压性为气旋快速发展提供了有利的环流背景场。 该爆发性气旋属于Shapiro-Keyser型气旋,其冷锋锋面和暖锋锋面断裂,逐渐形成相互垂直的“T型”结构。由于气旋发展迅速,低层相对涡度急剧增大,低压中心南部,来自西北方向的干冷空气随气旋式环流快速向东推进,与东南暖湿气流汇合,锋生作用较强,减弱东移的冷锋锋区与暖锋锋区逐渐形成相互垂直的“T型”结构。 Zwack-Okossi方程诊断分析表明,非绝热加热、温度平流和正涡度平流是该爆发性气旋发展的主要影响因子。气旋初始爆发阶段,西北冷空气进入温暖的洋面,海洋对上层大气感热输送和潜热释放较强,非绝热加热对气旋快速发展有较大贡献。气旋进一步发展,“T-型”锋面结构显著,温度平流项净贡献较大,对气旋的发展和维持起重要作用。
英文摘要:
      A super explosive cyclone with frontal “T-bone” structure over the Northern Atlantic from 3 to 6 January 2018 is investigated by using ERA-Interim data issued by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite-EAST (GOES-EAST) infrared satellite data supplied by Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling results. This explosive cyclone initially generated over the Gulf Stream and developed rapidly northeastward along the strong gradient of sea surface temperature. It deepened explosively within 6 hours after cyclogenesis, and its central sea level pressure decreased about 48.7 hPa in 24 hours. The upper-level trough, positive vorticity advection and lower-level atmospheric baroclinicity provided a favorable condition for the rapid development of this cyclone. It is a typical Shapiro-Keyser cyclone. The cold front and warm front fractured and gradually intersected perpendicularly to form a “T-bone” structure. With the rapid development of the cyclone, the relative vorticity in the lower-level increased sharply. The cold and dry air coming from the northwest advanced eastward rapidly in association with a cyclonic circulation, and met with the warm and moisture air coming from the southeast, frontogenesis enhanced significantly. Cold front moved from west nearly perpendicular to the warm front as a frontal “T-bone” structure. The diagnostic analyses based on Zwack-Okossi equation showed that latent heat release, thermal advection and positive vorticity advection resulted in its explosive development. At the initial developing stage, due to abundant surface heat fluxes and latent heat release, diabatic heating had a great contribution. With the rapid development, the frontal “T-bone” structure was significant. Temperature advection played the important role in the development and maintenance of the cyclone because its large net contribution.
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