龚佃利,王洪,许焕斌,王文青,朱君鉴,王俊. 2021. 2019年8月16日山东诸城一次罕见强雹暴结构和大雹形成的观测分析[J]. 气象学报, (0):-, doi:10.11676/qxxb2021.032
2019年8月16日山东诸城一次罕见强雹暴结构和大雹形成的观测分析
An observational analysis of a rare and severe hailstorm cloud structure and large hailstones formation on 16 August 2019 in Zhucheng, Shandong province
投稿时间:2020-10-27  修订日期:2021-02-20
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2021.032
中文关键词:  雹暴,雹云结构,偏振特征,观测分析,大雹形成机制
英文关键词:Hailstorm,Structure of the hailstorm,Characteristics of polarization,Observational analysis,Formation mechanism of large hail
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目( 2018YFC1507903),中国气象局云雾物理环境重点开放实验室开放课题(2020Z00711)
作者单位邮编
龚佃利 山东省人民政府人工影响天气办公室 250031
王洪 山东省人民政府人工影响天气办公室 250031
许焕斌 北京应用气象研究所 100082
王文青 山东省人民政府人工影响天气办公室 250031
朱君鉴 山东省气象台 250031
王俊 山东省人民政府人工影响天气办公室 250031
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中文摘要:
      利用潍坊CINRAD/SA新一代天气雷达、青岛S波段双偏振多普勒天气雷达探测数据,结合探空、区域气象站观测和实地冰雹调查资料,对2019年8月16日发生在山东诸城的一次罕见强雹暴过程的天气背景、风雹灾害、雷达回波演变、雹云结构及大雹形成机制进行分析。结果表明,受冷涡天气系统影响,鲁中山区、鲁东南地区低层暖湿、高层干冷,0—6 km高度间风矢量差为30.3 m/s,十分有利于强雹暴的发展。雹云发展迅速,历经发生、跃增、酝酿、降雹和消亡等五个阶段,在发生阶段即观测到中气旋、有界弱回波区(BWER)等结构并不断增强,长时间维持;降雹阶段的雹云具有典型的BWER-悬垂回波-回波墙和“S”型水平流场等特征,BWER与旋转上升气流和水平速度为0的“零线”结构相配置关联,“零线”穿过悬垂回波和BWER顶部强回波区,指向雹云对流上冲云顶,具有特定的成雹功能;强降雹时段,雹云BWER北侧回波墙及其上方强回波区的水平反射率因子(ZH)大于60 dBZ,对应的差分反射率因子(ZDR)大多介于-1—0 dB,表明为大冰雹的聚积区。依据对成熟阶段雹云雷达回波形态、径向速度和三维风场的分析,给出了实例雹云内主上升气流框架和具有成雹功能的“零线”结构示意图,有助于理解“零线”结构在大雹循环增长中的可能作用机理。
英文摘要:
      Based on Weifang CINRAD-SA (China New Generation Radar, S-band), Qingdao S-band dual polarization doppler weather radar, sounding, surface automatic meteorological station observation and hail data from field survey, a rare and severe hailstorm process occurred on 16 August 2019 in Zhucheng, Shandong province was analyzed, including weather background, storm disaster situation, the evolution of radar echo, structure of hailstorm and formation mechanism of large hailstones. The results show that, under the influence of the cold vortex system, it was warm and wet at low layer while dry and cold at high layer in middle mountainous area of Shandong Province and southeast area of that. Strong vertical wind shears between the altitude from 0 to 6 km were conducive to the development of strong hailstorm. The selected hailstorm developed rapidly and go through five stages, occurrence, jump increase, ferment, hail fall and extinction. In the occurrence stage, mesocyclone and bounded weak echo region (BWER) were observed, and continuous enhancement, long maintenance time. In the hailfall stage,the hailstorm has obvious typical characteristics structure such as BWER–echo overhang–echo wall and S-type horizontal flow field,the BWER has inherent configuration relation with rotating updraft and horizontal velocity "zero line",the "zero line" cross the echo-overhang and the strong echo region above the BWER and point to the top of the cloud,has a specific hail growth effect. In the north side and above of BWER, the horizontal polarization reflectivity (ZH)>60 dbZ, and differential reflectivity (ZDR) value was mostly between -1—0 dB in the mature stage, indicating there were the accumulation area of hailstones. Based on the shape, radial velocity and three-dimensional flow field structure of the radar echo in the mature stage of hailstorm, the framework of the main updraft in the hailstorm and the schematic diagram of the “zero line” structure with hailstorm forming function were presented, it is helpfull to understand the possible mechanism of the “zero line” structure in the cycle growth of the large hailstorm.
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