程志刚,李炬,张鑫宇,张京江,窦军霞,程月星. 2020. 基于三台测风激光雷达的大气湍流和三维风场研究[J]. 气象学报, 78(6):1021-1036, doi:10.11676/qxxb2020.070
基于三台测风激光雷达的大气湍流和三维风场研究
A study on turbulence and three-dimensional wind field based on observations of three wind lidars
投稿时间:2019-12-17  修订日期:2020-08-18
DOI:10.11676/qxxb2020.070
中文关键词:  测风激光雷达  协同观测  虚拟铁塔  大气湍流  三维风场
英文关键词:Wind lidar  Cooperative observation  Virtual tower stares  Atmospheric turbulence  Three-dimensional wind field
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFF0300101、2017YFC0209604)、北京市气象局科技项目(BMBKJ201701002)
作者单位E-mail
程志刚 北京城市气象研究院北京 100089  
李炬 北京城市气象研究院北京 100089 jli@ium.cn 
张鑫宇 北京城市气象研究院北京 100089  
张京江 北京城市气象研究院北京 100089  
窦军霞 北京城市气象研究院北京 100089  
程月星 北京市朝阳区气象局北京 100016  
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中文摘要:
      为了获取大气湍流和空间三维风场结构,利用3台同型号的测风激光雷达开展协同观测试验。(1)利用虚拟铁塔协同观测技术开展大气湍流探测,与香河102 m铁塔安装的三维超声风速仪观测结果做对比,32 m处高频(10 Hz)风速的相关系数高达0.92,平均误差为0.77 m/s,均方根误差为0.41 m/s;大气湍流强度(TKE)的相关系数高达0.99,平均误差为-0.02 m2/s2,均方根误差为0.08 m2/s2,并且协同观测的高频风速与三维超声风速仪的观测结果具有相同的频谱结构。(2)利用扫描协同观测技术开展三维风场探测,与铁塔上的常规测风设备相比,其90 m高度处的水平风速和风向的相关系数分别为0.92和0.93,平均误差为-0.41 m/s和0°,均方根误差为0.73 m/s和34°。相比于单台测风激光雷达,基于3台测风激光雷达协同观测技术具有一定的优势:不需要风场水平均匀的假设、探测精度更高等。但其对观测环境的要求较高:观测路径上不能有遮挡、观测必须协同等。在科研业务应用中,需要根据实际的观测需求合理制定观测方案。
英文摘要:
      To obtain atmospheric turbulence and three-dimensional wind field observations, cooperative observation experiments were carried out using three wind lidars. (1) Turbulence is detected based on the virtual tower stares cooperative observation technology (VTS) using three wind lidars. Comparison with observations of the three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer (sonic) deployed on a meteorological tower indicates that the results of the VTS are good. The correlation coefficient, average error (BIAS), root mean square error (RMSE) of wind speed with 10 Hz frequency at 32 m between VTS and sonic are 0.92, 0.77 m/s and 0.41 m/s, respectively. For the atmospheric turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), the correlation coefficient, BIAS, RMSE are 0.99, −0.02 m2/s2 and 0.08 m2/s2, respectively. The wind speed observed by VTS has the same spectral structure as that observed by the sonic. (2) Three-dimensional wind field detection is also carried out by using the scan cooperative observation technology based on three wind lidars. The observations of scan agree well with observations of the conventional wind anemometer deployed on the meteorological tower. The correlation coefficients, BIAS, RMSE of 10 min average horizontal wind speed and direction at 90 m are 0.92 and 0.93, −0.41 m/s and 0°, 0.73 m/s and 34°, respectively. Compared with observation of a single wind lidar, the cooperative observation using three wind lidars show certain advantages in that it doesn't need to assume uniform wind and has higher observation accuracy, etc. However, the cooperative observation has higher requirements for observational environment, e.g., there should be no block on the beam of the three wind lidars, the observations must be synergistic, etc. In the application, it is necessary to make a reasonable observational plan based on actual observational needs.
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